The first living organism on Earth emerged approximately three and a half billion years ago. Since then, life has evolved into countless forms and colonized…View More Deflecting Existential Risk with Space Colonization
Space is marvelous but hostile. If humans intend to be spacefaring, we must identify and overcome major obstacles before colonizing our Solar System. Some think…View More How to Settle the Solar System
Among our solar system’s planets, Mars seems a likely spot for future human habitation. Elon Musk is developing an interplanetary vehicle that may someday…View More The Martian Subsurface: A Shielded Environment for Life?
Elon Musk and NASA are quarrelling about whether it is possible to terraform Mars. The debate is an old one. Terraforming (sometimes called ecopoiesis in…View More Terraforming: Stranger than Science Fiction